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natural fiber geotextiles

纤维

14

Textiles in civil engineering.Part 1 –geotextiles

Peter R Rankilor

9 Blairgowrie Drive,West Tytherington,Maccles eld,Cheshire SK10 2UJ,UK

14.1Introduction to geotextiles

Although skins,brushwood and straw–mud composites have been used to improvesoft ground for many thousands of years,it is not realistic to refer to these as ‘geo-textiles’.The important factor that separates them from modern geotextiles is thatthey cannot be made with speci c and consistent properties.When modern poly-mers were developed in the mid 20th century,it became possible to create textileswith designed forecastable performance and to produce them in large quantitieswith statistically consistent and repeatable properties.Once this was achieved,thescience of geotextiles became possible.In essence,the difference between geotex-tiles and skins is their numerical or engineering capability.

In the early 1960s and 1970s,some pioneering engineers wondered if textilescould be used to control soils under dif cult conditions.For example,very wet soilsneed draining and textiles were used to line drains,to prevent mud and silt fromclogging up the drains.Similarly,engineers tried to use textiles beneath small accessroads constructed over very soft wet soils.It was found that these textiles helped toincrease the life and performance of roads.Also,early work was being undertakenin the laying of textiles on the coast to prevent erosion by wave action.A numberof limited but historical publications were published.1–2

However,in those early days,it was not known exactly how these textiles performed their functions.How did they actually lter? How did a relatively weaktextile apparently support heavy vehicles and improve road performance? This was a dangerous period for engineers,because it was quite possible that theexperience-based employment of geotextiles could lead to their use in unsuitableconstructions.It was likely that before long,an engineer would use textiles in a struc-ture that was too large,too demanding or too stressful for the product;a signi cantfailure could result.It was therefore vital that study and research should be under-taken to provide theories and preliminary design equations against which to testsite results.

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